Fern Facts

Nature, Plant, Fern, Leaves, Frond

A fern is a sort of plant with about 12,000 species known. Like mosses they also bear xylem and phloem. They also bear roots, stems and leaves like other vascular plants but they lack seeds and blossoms. They produce spores. The usual examples are horsetails, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ferns.

The term pteridophyte also refers to ferns. A pteridologist research about ferns and lycophytes. Fossil record suggests that they evolved 360 million years ago in the Carboniferous period but majority of those living ferns are about 145 million years old which evolved in the Cretaceous. They’re not so significant from the commercial point of view but are grown for ornamentation, food or remediating soils. Some are weeds and some hold special place in mythology, culture and art.

Ferns are vascular plants differing from lycophytes by having true leaves. They differ from gymnosperms and angiosperms in lacking seeds and blossoms but bear spores. Their life cycle shows alternation of generation which means it consists of diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic stage. A sporophytic phase produces haploid spores by meiosis. A spore grows by mitosis and creates gametophyte which develops photosynthetic prothallus. A mobile, flagellated sperm fertilizes the egg which is connected to the prothallus. A zygote that’s currently diploid produces sporophyte by mitosis.

They prefer to live in a wide array of habitats ranging from remote mountain elevations, to dry desert stone faces, to bodies of water or in open areas. Generally they prefer four types of habitats namely moist, shady forests; crevices in rock faces, particularly when sheltered from the full sun; acid wetlands including bogs and swamps; and tropical trees, where many species are epiphytes.

Many are known to produce relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The spores are rich source of lipids, protein and carbs so are consumed by some animals. The stem is usually a underground rhizome but in some cases it is a ground creeping stolon or semi-woody tree trunk. The leaves are green and photosynthetic and are known as fronds due to their horizontal arrangement. Tropophylls participate only in photosynthesis such as the leaves of other vascular plants. Sporophylls produce spores and compared with the scales of pines. In addition they photosynthesize like tropophylls. Brophophylls produce abnormally high number of spores. The roots are underground and non-photosynthetic. They are fibrous like other vascular plants.

Prothallus is green, photosynthetic structure generally one cell thick. It’s heart of kidney shaped measuring 3-10 mm long and 2-8 mm wide. It produces gametes in the form of antheridia and archegonia. Anteridia are small spherical structures which produce flagellated sperms. Archegonia are flask-shaped structures which produce single egg. Rhizoids are root like construction that absorbs water and minerals. They anchor prothallus to dirt.

Facts on The Great Barrier Reef

Great Barrier Reef, Diving, Coral, Ocean

Known through out the world as the only naturally built structure that could be seen from the moon, the Great Barrier Reed crosses an enormous distance of over 2,600 km. This natural formation constructed by billions of coral polyps is a UNESCO World Heritage and has enjoyed a number of the world’s accolades as far as marine biodiversity is concerned. It is paramount in research and study of marine organisms in the Pacific area and around the world. Quite frankly, nothing is ever like it. It is a behemoth by itself. It is located Queensland, Australia.

Life in the Great Barrier is nothing short of simple. The principle of survival of the fittest holds true; planktons provide food for the smallest fishes, which are also the feeding frenzy of smaller fishes, which are also the means of survival for the bigger ones and so on and so forth till it reaches to man’s level, the maximum place in the food chain. I wonder if man ever tops the list of the Great White’s food chain, I don’t think so.

The world has received so much attention from both the local Australian authorities as well as from international agencies promoting balance in the natural environment. It is an epitome of natural wealth and treasure which is too valuable to ignore. They do everything they can to preserve and protect the natural occurrences of events in the reef and also to lessen the potentially harmful activities that may disrupt the natural balance. The reef is nature’s gift to men; it’s too precious to just plunder and bangle with.

The reed supports a wide array of marine life. It is not called one of the seven natural wonders of the world for nothing. True, it amazes those who came to visit; most tourist visiting the reef left with an astounding memory of something that is so grand and an adventure that’s too precious and unforgettable.

Tourism from the reef brings in funds for the Australian government over any other marine thing in Australia. Approximately 2 million people would go to the Great Barrier Reef annually which in turn was argued to post threat to the reef. However, tourism in the region largely depends on the actions on the Great Barrier Reef.

Something that is a enormous gift, such as in the form of the Great Barrier Reef should be carefully handled. It should be taken care of and considered fragile. It’s value should be well discerned in order to keep its life and its glorious beauty.

Tree Types

Lone Tree, Tree, Oak, Clouds, Landscape

There are lots of different types of trees that stem from different parts of the world. Here’s a list of a few of them, in addition to the country’s other national treasures.

Japanese trees:

Japanese trees, often known as Cherry Blossoms, are indigenous to a lot of East Asian states such as Japan, Korea, and China. In Japan, cherry blossoms are thought of as a metaphor for the ephemeral nature of life. The humanity of the blossoms- their beauty and speedy death- is frequently associated with mortality, the symbolism of that is usually seen in Western art, anime and film.

Another treasure from Japan is their delicious fish. Over the fish itself, is the Japanese way of preparing it, known as sushi. Sushi has become a beloved food collection amongst people throughout the world.

Maple trees:

The red sugar maple foliage is the outstanding quality of the Canadian flag. Maple syrup is delicious and available in abundance in Canada. It can nevertheless be quite costly when sold abroad.

While Canada is not famous for their cuisine, they do have one or two dishes worth mentioning. Poutine is among them. Poutine is a Quebecois dish that consists of French fries, cheese curds and hot gravy. By adding the hot sauce on the other ingredients, they all melt together, making a delicious- though gluttonous- meal.

Banana trees:

As you might have guessed, banana trees grow bananas and they’re native to tropical South and Southeast Asia. Having said that, today banana trees are grown in at least 107 states, mostly for their fruit.

Based on your culinary taste, South and Southeast Asia have some of the most delicious foods in the world, which range from Indian curries, to Thai mango salads, to the hundreds of kinds of sticky rice from Laos. Each area has their own spices and ways of preparing dishes that make them so authentic.

So you see, in addition to ingesting carbon dioxide and providing us oxygen with which to breath and grow things, trees provide food, syrup, beautiful flowers and more.

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Getting Butterflies in Your Yard

Dovetail, Butterfly, Nature, Insect

The best way to do this is to supply butterflies with an assortment of plants that are attractive to butterflies native to your area. Don’t just go to the local big-box retailer and buy anything with the word”butterfly” in it. Do some basic research for yourself, which is quite easy to do online, and you will fare much better.

The first thing you need to do is assess which sort of environment you might have. Is your lawn wooded, or mostly a garden type? Some butterflies will only go to a particular type of environment, and regardless of what plants you have, they won’t go to them if they are not in the right location.

The next step is to do an internet search for your county or city, and see what butterflies are commonly found there. As soon as you do so, cross-reference that information with the sort of environment you have (woody, garden, etc.. .) . Most often times lists such as that will also record the host plant of the butterfly, but if not, you can search for this too.

Once you find out the species of butterflies that are native to your area, the next thing you want to do is find out what sort of plants these butterflies are drawn to. Butterflies use two types of plants – a host plant, and a nectar plant. A host plant is the type of plant that they will lay their eggs on. The nectar plant is a type of plant that the adult butterflies will feed off of. Normally butterflies will have a large variety of nectar plants from which they will feed, but only 1 host plant that they will use to deposit their eggs. The monarch butterfly, for example, will feed from many different type of nectar plants (lantana, periwinkle, pentas, etc.. .) But only have a single host plant, that’s the milkweed. The monarch butterfly will only lay their eggs on a milkweed plant, because that’s the only plant which their larvae (caterpillars) can eat.

To draw the most butterflies to your yard, you may have an assortment of nectar plants, but it’s most important to have the host plants. You will find, by planting many of the host plants together, you’ll draw a great deal of species of butterfly.